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Links from BioSystems

Items: 1 to 20 of 685

1.

Axon guidance

Axon guidance / axon pathfinding is the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Growing axons have a highly motile structure at the growing tip called the growth cone, which senses the guidance cues in the environment through guidance cue receptors and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Developmental Biology

As a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are aspects of the roles of cell adhesion molecules in axonal guidance and myogenesis,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth

The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and is involved in a variety of cellular processes of importance for the formation and maintenance of the nervous system. The role of NCAM in neural differentiation and synaptic plasticity...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

RET signaling

The RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed primarily in urogenital precursor cells, spermatogonocytes, dopaminergic neurons, motor neurons and neural crest progenitors and derived cells. . It is essential for kidney genesis, spermatogonial self-renewal and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Interleukin receptor SHC signaling

Phosphorylation of Shc at three tyrosine residues, 239, 240 (Gotoh et al. 1996) and 317 (Salcini et al. 1994) involves unidentified tyrosine kinases presumed to be part of the activated receptor complex. These phosphorylated tyrosines subsequently bind SH2 signaling proteins such...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling

The extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, are phosphorylated by the MAP2Ks 1 and 2 in response to a wide range of extracellular stimuli to promote differentiation, proliferation, cell motility, cell survivial, metabolism and transcription,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation

VEGFR2 stimulates ERK not via GRB2-SOS-RAS, but via pY1175-dependent phosphorylation of PLC gamma and subsequent activation of PKCs. PKC plays an important mediatory role in the proliferative Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. PKC alpha can intersect the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK cascade at the level...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway

Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic effect through interaction with transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors VEGFR, selectively...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Signaling by VEGF

In normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angiogenesis). In tumor progression, activation of VEGF pathways promotes tumor vascularization,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Frs2-mediated activation

The adaptor protein Frs2 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2) can mediate the prolonged activation of the MAPK (ERK) cascade.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN

RIT and RIN are two small guanine nucleotide binding proteins that share more than 50% sequence identity with RAS, including highly conserved core effector domains. Unlike RAS, the C termini of RIT and RIN lack a typical prenylation motif (CAAX, XXCC, or CXC) required for the association...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

SOS-mediated signalling

SOS is recruited to the plasma membrane and mediates activation of Ras.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

SHC1 events in EGFR signaling

GRB2 can bind EGFR directly or through another SH2-containing protein, SHC1. This association leads to RAS activation.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

GRB2 events in EGFR signaling

Autophosphorylated EGFR tyrosine residues are docking sites for many downstream effectors in EGFR signaling. The adaptor protein GRB2 binds to phosphotyrosine residues in the C-tail of EGFR through its SH2 domain. GRB2 is constitutively associated with SOS, a guanine nucleotide exchange...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling

The Interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5 and Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors form a family of heterodimeric receptors that have specific alpha chains but share a common beta subunit, often referred to as the common beta (Bc). Both subunits contain extracellular...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Interleukin-2 signaling

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine that is produced by T cells in response to antigen stimulation. Originally, IL-2 was discovered because of its potent growth factor activity on activated T cells in vitro and was therefore named 'T cell growth factor' (TCGF). However, the generation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

FCERI mediated MAPK activation

Formation of the LAT signaling complex leads to activation of MAPK and production of cytokines. The sequence of events that leads from LAT to cytokine production has not been as clearly defined as the sequence that leads to degranulation. However, the pathways that lead to cytokine...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

RAF/MAP kinase cascade

The RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway regulates processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, senescence and cell motility in response to growth factors, hormones and cytokines, among others. Binding of these stimuli to receptors in the plasma membrane promotes the GEF-mediated...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Signaling by Leptin

Leptin (LEP, OB, OBS), a circulating adipokine, and its receptor LEPR (DB, OBR) control food intake and energy balance and are implicated in obesity-related diseases (recently reviewed in Amitani et al. 2013, Dunmore and Brown 2013, Cottrell and Mercer 2012, La Cava 2012, Marroqui...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

MAPK family signaling cascades

The mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of conserved protein serine threonine kinases that respond to varied extracellular stimuli to activate intracellular processes including gene expression, metabolism, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, among others....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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