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Links from BioSystems

Items: 1 to 20 of 232

1.

G alpha (i) signalling events

The classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinases.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

GPCR ligand binding

There are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all physiological processes (Frederiksson 2003). GPCRs are receptors for a diverse range...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)

Rhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and thus, can be subdivided into 19 subfamilies (Subfamily A1-19) based on a phylogenetic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

GPCR downstream signaling

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it has become clear that this greatly oversimplifies the complexities of GPCR signaling...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Peptide ligand-binding receptors

These receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Signaling by GPCR

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors in humans, accounting for more than 1% of the protein-coding capacity of the human...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Chemokine receptors bind chemokines

Chemokine receptors are cytokine receptors found on the surface of certain cells, which interact with a type of cytokine called a chemokine. Following interaction, these receptors trigger a flux of intracellular calcium which leads to chemotaxis. Chemokine receptors are divided into...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Chemokine signaling pathway

Inflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for the cell trafficking and thus are vital for protective host response. In addition, chemokines...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

G alpha (z) signalling events

The heterotrimeric G protein Gz, is a member of the Gi family. Unlike other Gi family members it lacks an ADP ribosylation site cysteine four residues from the carboxyl terminus and is thus pertussis toxin-insensitive. It inhibits adenylyl cyclase types I, V and VI. G alpha (z) interacts...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors)

The class C G-protein-coupled receptors are a class of G-protein coupled receptors that include the metabotropic glutamate receptors and several additional receptors (Brauner-Osborne H et al, 2007). Family C GPCRs have a large extracellular N-terminus which binds the orthosteric (endogenous)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Opioid Signalling

Opioids are chemical substances similar to opiates, the active substances found in opium (morphine, codeine etc.). Opioid action is mediated by the receptors for endogenous opioids; peptides such as the enkephalins, the endorphins or the dynorphins. Opioids possess powerful analgesic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Morphine addiction

Morphine is an alkaloid from the plant extracts of opium poppy. Although morphine is highly effective for the treatment of pain, it is also known to be intensely addictive. We now know that the most important brain-reward circuit involves dopamine (DA) -containing neurons in the ventral...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Activation of GABAB receptors

GABA B receptors are metabotropic receptors that are functionally linked to C type G protein coupled receptors.? GABA B receptors are activated upon ligand binding. The GABA B1 subunit binds ligand and GABA B2 subunit modulates the activity of adenylate cyclase via the intracellular...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

GABA B receptor activation

Functional GABA B receptors are heteromers of GABA B1 and B2 subunits, complexed with G protein alpha-i, 0, beta, and gamma subunits. They function as metabotropic receptors. When GABA is bound to the B1 sub-unit, the B2 subunit undergoes a conformational change that releases the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

G-protein activation

Receptor activated heterotrimeric G proteins consist of the Galpha and the tightly associated Gbeta-gamma subunits. When a ligand binds to a G protein-coupled receptor, it stabilises a conformation with an high affinity for the G-protein bound to GDP. GDP is then exchanged for GTP...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

GABA receptor activation

Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are the major inhibitory receptors in human synapses. They are of two types. GABA A receptors are fast-acting ligand gated chloride ion channels that mediate membrane depolarization and thus inhibit neurotransmitter release (G Michels et al...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Glutamatergic synapse

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synaptic cleft, glutamate acts on postsynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Taste transduction

Five basic tastes are recognized by humans and most other animals - bitter, sweet, sour, salty and umami. In vertebrates, taste stimuli are detected by taste receptor cells (TRCs). At least three distinct cell types are found in mammalian taste buds : type I cells, type II cells,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Cooperation of PDCL (PhLP1) and TRiC/CCT in G-protein beta folding

The chaperonin complex TRiC/CCT is needed for the proper folding of all five G-protein beta subunits (Wells et al. 2006). TRiC/CCT cooperates with the phosducin-like protein PDCL (commonly known as PhLP or PhLP1), which interacts with both TRiC/CCT and G-protein beta subunits 1-5...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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