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Links from BioSystems

Items: 1 to 20 of 470

1.

Adaptive Immune System

Adaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with remarkable diversity tailored to recognize aspects of particular pathogens or antigens....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Immune System

Humans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first critical hours and days of exposure to a new pathogen, our innate immune system.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Class I MHC mediated antigen processing & presentation

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules play an important role in cell mediated immunity by reporting on intracellular events such as viral infection, the presence of intracellular bacteria or tumor-associated antigens. They bind peptide fragments of these proteins...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Antigen processing and presentation

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Epstein-Barr virus infection

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxic T cells, causing infectious mononucleosis during adolescence. Primary infection...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Phagosome

Phagocytosis is the process of taking in relatively large particles by a cell, and is a central mechanism in the tissue remodeling, inflammation, and defense against infectious agents. A phagosome is formed when the specific receptors on the phagocyte surface recognize ligands on...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Graft-versus-host disease

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a lethal complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) where immunocompetent donor T cells attack the genetically disparate host cells. GVHD pathophysiology can be summerized in a three-step process. Step 1 involves the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Viral myocarditis

Myocarditis is a cardiac disease associated with inflammation and injury of the myocardium. It results from various etiologies, both noninfectious and infectious, but coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is still considered the dominant etiological agent. Myocarditis may be caused by direct cytopathic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
125138
KEGG
: hsa05416
9.

Allograft rejection

Allograft rejection is the consequence of the recipient's alloimmune response to nonself antigens expressed by donor tissues. After transplantation of organ allografts, there are two pathways of antigen presentation. In the direct pathway, recipient T cells react to intact allogeneic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Autoimmune thyroid disease

The classification of autoimmune throid disease (AITD) includes Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and its variants, Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis or primary myxedema. HT is characterized by the presence of goitre, thyroid autoantibodies...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Type I diabetes mellitus

Type I diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells. Certain beta-cell proteins act as autoantigens after being processed by antigen-presenting cell (APC), such as macrophages and dendritic cells, and presented in a complex...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)

Cell adhesion molecules are (glyco)proteins expressed on the cell surface and play a critical role in a wide array of biologic processes that include hemostasis, the immune response, inflammation, embryogenesis, and development of neuronal tissue. There are four main groups: the integrin...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Interferon gamma signaling

Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) belongs to the type II interferon family and is secreted by activated immune cells-primarily T and NK cells, but also B-cells and APC. INFG exerts its effect on cells by interacting with the specific IFN-gamma receptor (IFNGR). IFNGR consists of two chains,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Herpes simplex infection

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishment of latent infection in neuronal ganglia. HSV is the main cause of herpes infections...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

HTLV-I infection

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Immunoregulatory interactions between a Lymphoid and a non-Lymphoid cell

A number of receptors and cell adhesion molecules play a key role in modifying the response of cells of lymphoid origin (such as B-, T- and NK cells) to self and tumor antigens, as well as to pathogenic organisms.Molecules such as KIRs and LILRs form part of a crucial surveillance...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Interferon Signaling

Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that play a central role in initiating immune responses, especially antiviral and antitumor effects. There are three types of IFNs:Type I (IFN-alpha, -beta and others, such as omega, epsilon, and kappa), Type II (IFN-gamma) and Type III (IFN-lamda)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Cytokine Signaling in Immune system

Cytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concentrations. Cytokines bind to specific membrane receptors, which then signal the cell...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Antigen processing-Cross presentation

MHC class I molecules generally present peptide antigens derived from proteins synthesized by the cell itself to CD8+ T cells. However, in some circumstances, antigens from extracellular environment can be presented on MHC class I to stimulate CD8+ T cell immunity, a process termed...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

ER-Phagosome pathway

The other TAP-dependent cross-presentation mechanism in phagocytes is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-phagosome model. Desjardins proposed that ER is recruited to the cell surface, where it fuses with the plasma membrane, underneath phagocytic cups, to supply membrane for the formation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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