RING finger, HC subclass, found in tripartite motif-containing protein 13 (TRIM13) and similar proteins
TRIM13, also known as B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia tumor suppressor Leu5, leukemia-associated protein 5, putative tumor suppressor RFP2, RING finger protein 77 (RNF77), or Ret finger protein 2, is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane anchored E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that interacts proteins localized to the ER, including valosin-containing protein (VCP), a protein indispensable for ER-associated degradation (ERAD). It also targets the known ER proteolytic substrate CD3-delta, but not the N-end rule substrate Ub-R-YFP (yellow fluorescent protein) for its degradation. Moreover, TRIM13 regulates ubiquitination and degradation of NEMO to suppress tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF- kappa B) activation. It is also involved in NF-kappaB p65 activation and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT)-dependent activation of c-Rel upon T-cell receptor engagement. Furthermore, TRIM13 negatively regulates lanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-mediated type I interferon production. It also regulates caspase-8 ubiquitination, translocation to autophagosomes, and activation during ER stress induced cell death. Meanwhile, TRIM13 enhances ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis by increasing p53 stability and decreasing AKT kinase activity through MDM2 and AKT degradation. TRIM13 belongs to the C-V subclass of TRIM (tripartite motif) family of proteins that are defined by an N-terminal RBCC (RING, Bbox, and coiled coil) domains, including three consecutive zinc-binding domains, a C3HC4-type RING-HC finger, Bbox1 and Bbox2, and a coiled coil region. In addition, TRIM13 contains a C-terminal transmembrane domain.