RING finger, HC subclass, found in Arabidopsis thaliana RING membrane-anchor proteins (AtRMAs) and similar proteins
AtRMAs, including AtRma1, AtRma2, and AtRma3, are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Arabidopsis homologs of human outer membrane of the ER-anchor E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, RING finger protein 5 (RNF5). AtRMAs possess E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and may play a role in the growth and development of Arabidopsis. The AtRMA1 and AtRMA3 genes are predominantly expressed in major tissues, such as cotyledons, leaves, shoot-root junction, roots, and anthers, while AtRMA2 expression is restricted to the root tips and leaf hydathodes. AtRma1 probably functions with the Ubc4/5 subfamily of E2. AtRma2 is likely involved in the cellular regulation of ABP1 expression levels through interacting with auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1). AtRMA proteins contain an N-terminal C3HC4-type RING-HC finger and a trans-membrane-anchoring domain in their extreme C-terminal region.